quinta-feira, 29 de novembro de 2012

Passive Voice (Voz Passiva)

A voz passiva é formada com o verbo auxiliar be seguido do Past Participle (particípio passado) do verbo principal. O verbo to be ficará no mesmo tempo verbal em que aparece o verbo principal na voz ativa. O elemento que tem a função de objeto na voz ativa torna-se o sujeito na voz passiva. Os exemplos abaixo ajudarão você a entender melhor:

Active
Passive
Direct Object
Subject
People speak Portuguese in Brazil.
Portuguese is spoken in Brazil
Caetano wrote these songs.
These songs were written by Caetano.
Someone stole my rign yesterday.
My ring was stolen yesterday.
The members signed the contract.
The contract was signed by the members.











Quadro geral dos tempos da voz ativa e da passiva (to watch)

Tempo verbal
Voz Ativa
Voz passiva
Simple Present
watch(es)
am/ is/are wached
Present Continuous
am / is / are watching
am/ is/are being watched
Present Perfect
have / has watched
have/has been watched
Present Perfect Continuous
have / has been watching
have/has been being watched
Simple Past
watched
was/were watched
Past Continuous
was / were watching
was/were being watched
Past Perfect
had watched
had been watched
Past Perfect Continuous
had been watching
had been being watched
Simple Future
will watch
will be watched
Future Continuous
will be watching
will be being watched
Future Perfect
will have watched
will have been watched
Future Perfect Continuous
will have been watching
will be been being watched
Simple Conditional
would watch
would be watched
Conditional Continuous
would be watching
would be being watched
Conditional Perfect
would have watched
would have been watched
Conditional Perfect Continuous
would have been watched
would have been being watched
Infinitive
to watch
to be watched
Infinitive Continuous
to be watching
to be being watched
Infinitive Perfect
to have watched
to have been watched
Infinitive Perfect Continuous
to have been watching
to have been being watched
Present Participle / Gerund
watching
being watched
Past Participle
having watched
having been watched
  
- Usos:

1 - A voz passiva é empregada para enfatizar mais a ação ou o seu resultado do que a pessoa que faz ação. É muit empregada em notícias quando, então, o foco é o que acontece, aconteceu, ou acontecerá.

2 - Somente os verbos transitivos diretos podem ter voz passiva. O sujeito da oração ativa torna-se a sujeito da oração passiva, mencionado quando necessário, o objeto direto da ativa torna-se o sujeito da voz passiva:

Ex.: Mark wrote this letter. ==> This letter was written by Mark.
Ex.: People speak Portuguese in Brazil ==> Portuguese is spoken in Brazil.

3 - O agente da passiva pode ser omitido quando:

a- Quando for óbvio:

Ex.: The letter was delivered early this morning. (Who delivers letters? A mail carrier does.)
Ex.: Portugese is spoken in Brazil. (Who speaks Portuguese? People do.)

b- Quando não for importante ou desconhecido. Por essa razão, não faz sentido usar someone, somebody, people como agentes:

Ex.: My wallet was found yesterday. (Someone found it.)

4 - O agente da passiva deve ser mencionado, quando for relevante para a oração:

Ex.: Hamlet was written by Willian Sheakspeare.
Ex.: The peace agreement is going to be signed by the two presidents.

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